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  • Technical Terms

    • What is Rotate Mode? (90°Rotation)

      Rotate Mode: Rotate the video image by 90° (anticlockwise), namely switch the vertical and horizontal pixels. For example, the resolution of 1920x1080 is shifted to 1080x1920 after Rotate Mode is turned on.


      In Rotate Mode, the resolution in vertical direction is enhanced to adjust to narrow environment such as the corridor, so that further images can be recorded.

      Notice:
      In Rotate Mode, the image is rotated by 90° anticlockwise. Thus the camera has to be rotated by 90°clockwise to compensate the image direction.
      All the Hinovision IPCs support Rotate Mode.

    • What is Third Stream?

      Third Stream: Independent of main stream and sub stream, supported resolutions include all resolutions of main stream and sub stream. The encoding parameters can be configured individually. Given the network conditions and the terminal display capabilities, third streams is optional for remote live view: HD with full frame rate, HD with low frame rate and SD with full frame rate, respectively. Together with SVC and target cropping, third stream provides better live view performance. Also third stream offers users an alternative to select data streams.

    • What is SVC?

      SVC (Scalable Video Compression): Analyze the delay and packet loss statistics and self-adaptively extract the frames. Therefore the bit rate is reduced while the resolution is maintained.

      All the series of Hinovision IPCs support SVC.

    • What is ROI?

      ROI (Region of Interest): Region of interest is configurable for individual streams. Detected faces and license plate can be set as ROI and tracked dynamically. In low bit rate situation the encoding resources would be mainly allocated to the ROI to improve the image quality. The improvements can be controlled through the ROI level. The activation of ROI function would reduce the image quality of other region, while sufficient bandwidth would eliminate the effect of ROI.

    • What is Smoothing?

      Smoothing: Adjusting the size of I frame. In video streams, I frame>P frame>B frame. By decreasing the smoothing index, I frame size is increased and the image is clearer. While increasing the smoothing index, the size of I frame would be decreased and would get close to P/B frame size. And the image looks smoother.

      The smoothing index can be used to adjust the stream bandwidth. The adjustable range is 0-100 and the default value is 50.

    • Which is Mirror function?

      Mirror function is usually used when the device is installed upside down, and can be turned on in image’s advanced configuration.

      All the Hinovision IPCs support mirror function.

    • What is PoE Power Supply?

      Only the network camera has POE. 1,2,3,6 are the data wire and 4,5,7,8 are idle. Two methods can be applied. With 8-core wire, one method is using 1-4 cores for both power supply and data transmission. Another method to use 5-8 cores for power supply while the rest for data transmission.

    • What is the difference between ICR camera and ordinary camera?

      In order to solve the problems including white image and defocus in the daylight, ICR camera uses two filters. One is used to filter out infrared light during the daylight and another is for filtering out visible light at night. When the illuminance is lower than the threshold set in the OSD menu, the camera will automatically switch to the other filter. The ordinary camera, by contrast, uses the same filter all day long.

    • What is the problem with Depth of field?

      The problem of blurry picture caused by depth of field occur quiet often. When focus on a certain point, the depth of field is the area where is still clear both before and after the focus point. It decides that how to highlight the subject and blur the background or to take a clear background. When the depth of field is inappropriate, the pictures will appear as shown below:

      Depth of Field

      Different Depth of Field

      Three key elements decide the depth of field: 1) Focal length of lens, the longer the focal length, and the shorter the depth of field; the shorter the focal length and the longer the depth of field; 2) the lens aperture, the larger the aperture, the shorter the depth of field, the smaller the aperture, the longer the depth of field; 3) object distance (the distance between the lens and the object distance), the closer the object distance, the shorter depth of field, the farther the object distance, the longer the depth of field.

      The following lists are examples of blurry picture caused by change of aperture size. As shown below:

      Depth of Field2

      Blurry picture caused by change of aperture size

      If we decide to focus lens during daytime and the light (or sunshine) of the scene is very bright, the aperture will narrow automatically, in order to control the quantity of input light and to avoid over exposure. During the daytime, the size of aperture is small, the depth of field is long and the area both before and after the focus point is clear. However, as the scene changing into dark, the aperture will broaden itself to have enough light for picture exposure. The depth of field shortens and the picture becomes blurry simultaneously. The way to avoid the problem is to focus lens in the evening or when iris mode switching to manual.

    • What is H.264+?

      H.264+ technology is an intelligent image algorithm. It is a remarkable encoding technology which focuses on the features of the surveillance video and is optimized based on the H.264/AVC. H.264+ lowers the bitrate of the surveillance video greatly so as to save the system cost.

    • What are Stream and Bitrate?

      After the video is compressed, a stream is generated.

      Bitrate (bps): quantity of bit stream per second. 

      Bitrate type: Constant Bitrate (CBR), Variable Bitrate (VBR).

      Stream type: video, audio, video & audio complex stream.

    • What is Main stream/Sub stream?

      Main stream comes with high resolution and full frame rate, it can be used for main monitoring and recording.

      Sub stream comes with lower resolution, it can be used for mobile monitoring.

      Some devices support third stream which offers more flexible choices.

    • What is the maximum distance for PoE cable?

      In case of using CAT5e cable, 100m (333ft) is the maximum distance between the two PoE devices.
    • ABF

      ABF (Auto Back Focus) technology allows cameras to adjust the position of the image sensor to obtain optimal focus. This feature can also be accessed via the Web client.

    • ANR

      NVRs (Network Video Recorders) with the ANR (Automatic Network Replenishment) function can automatically store video data on the IPC (Internet Protocol Camera) storage card when the network is disconnected. After recovery of the network, the NVR automatically retrieves the video data stored on the camera.

    • Audio Loss Detection

      Audio Loss Detection is one of the exception detections in certain cameras' Smart Features set. When this function is enabled, alarm actions will be triggered when there is audio loss. 

    • BLC

      BLC

      BLC (Backlight Compensation) compensates for the luminance of video captured in a backlit environment, while maintaining the luminance of the overall video sequence. Simply put, BLC enables objects that appear dark to be visible against a very bright background such as in front of a window or entrance. BLC is usually effective for some specific region in the video, as the background is usually overexposed.

    • Defog

      Defog

      By modeling the imaging features of smoke, dust, fog, etc., defog technology effectively restores details and color to obtain accurate and natural video. Defog technology helps maintain clarity in images captured in poor weather conditions such as rain, smog, or fog.   

    • Digital Watermark

      Digital watermark technology embeds the device information onto the recorded video. Digital watermarks may be used to verify the authenticity or integrity of the video or to show the identity of its owners.

    • Defocus Detection

      Defocus

      Defocus detection is one of the exception detections in certain cameras' Smart Features set. When this function is enabled, alarm actions will be triggered when the camera is out of focus.

    • 3D DNR

      DNR

      Hinovision cameras adopt 3D digital noise reduction to provide images with less noise in low-light surveillance scenes compared to conventional cameras. 3D DNR can be used to enhance image quality and save bandwidth. 

    • EIS

      In conditions with slight vibrations (e.g., an electrical pole in strong winds), videos will appear fuzzy due to the vibration. EIS (Electronic Image Stabilization) can help reduce the effects of vibration in a video.

    • Face Detection

      FaceDetection

      Face Detection is one of the detection features in Hinovision's Smart Features set. With Hinovision face detection technology, supported network camera can accurately detect human faces, capture facial images, or trigger an alarm.

    • HDD Group

      HDD (Hard Disk Drive) Group mode is one of the HDD storage modes in Hinovision DVRs/NVRs. Multiple HDDs can be managed in groups. Video from specified channels can be recorded onto a certain HDD group through HDD settings.

    • HDD Quota

      HDD (Hard Disk Drive) Quota mode is one of the HDD storage modes in Hinovision DVRs/NVRs. Each camera can be configured with an allocated quota of HDDs to store recorded files.
    • Heat Map

      Heatmap

      The video surveillance heat map records the motion of customer foot traffic over a period of time and displays temporal density and spatial statistics in different colors. For instance, in the figure red shows the areas customers most frequently visited and tended to stay longer, and blue reflects otherwise. Heat map is ideal for use in locations such as supermarkets, retail stores, etc., to help businesses identify the most popular merchandise and where to place products in order to increase sales.

    • HLC

      HLC

      In conditions with a strong light source towards the camera, there will be over-exposed areas, or “high light.” The HLC (High Light Compensation) function can automatically recognize and constrain the high light to make objects more distinguishable.

    • HD-TVI

      HD-TVI (High Definition Transport Video Interface) is an open standard for analog video transmission and is based on the original analog transmission media. The advantages of HD-TVI are as follows:

      1) Farther transmission distance
      2) Higher video resolution
      3) Reliable anti-interference performance as it carries low-frequency signal

    • ICR

      Cameras with the ICR (IR Cut filter Removable) function have a mechanical IR filter that filters infrared light during the day to correct color casts caused by infrared light. At night the camera removes the filter automatically to let infrared light pass through, enhancing night visibility.
    • Intrusion Detection

      Intrusion detection is a behavior analysis function in Hinovision's Smart Features set. If a person enters and loiters in a pre-defined virtual region, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre-configured. By applying the latest algorithm, it automatically analyzes the intruder’s dimension ratio to reduce false alarms. Intrusion detection is extremely beneficial for defined area protection.
    • Low Bit Rate

      lbr

      By applying an advanced codec (compressor/decompressor) algorithm, certain Hinovision Smart IP cameras can realize efficient encoding and further minimize the system’s load and storage requirements. At a very low bit rate streaming condition, 720p resolution at a 2 Mbps bitrate, cameras are able to increase the image quality up to 30 percent.

    • Line Crossing Detection

      Line Crossing detection is one of the behavior detection features in Hinovision's Smart Features set. If a person crosses a pre-defined virtual line, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre-configured to do so.
    • Motion Detection

      If there is any motion in the configured detection area, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger preconfigured alarms or recording. Users can set sensitivity level, detection area, and arming schedule accordingly.
    • Multi-Address Mode

      Multi-address mode is an NVR (Network Video Recorder) function on networks with more than one NIC (Network Interface Controller). Each NIC works independently with separate parameter settings, which can be assigned with a different IP address in a different network. Multi-address mode can be used to establish network isolation.
    • Net-Fault Tolerance Mode

      Net-Fault Tolerance Mode is an NVR (Network Video Recorder) function on networks with more than one NIC (Network Interface Controller). All the NICs use the same IP address. If a working NIC breaks down, others will continue to work and the NVRs’ network connection is not affected.

    • Object Removal Detection

      Object Removal Detection is one of the behavior analysis detections in Hinovision's Smart Features set. If objects are removed from a pre-defined region, such as exhibits on display, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre-configured.
    • People Counting

      People Counting is one of the features in Hinovision's Smart Features set. Cameras with the people counting function are usually installed vertically to the entrance gate of hotels, supermarkets, museums, etc. The number of people that enter and exit the room can be counted and displayed on the screen in real time.
    • Privacy mask

      Privacy mask is used to block or mask certain areas of a scene from viewing and recording to protect privacy.
    • ROI

      roi

      In some surveillance scenarios, users pay special attention only to a certain region instead of the entire image. The region that attracts special attention is known as the region of interest, or ROI. The ROI encoding method was developed to provide different compression levels between the ROI and background information in order to capture clearer key information without increasing the overall bitrate. The application of ROI encoding technology helps to conserve bandwidth and optimize the bitrate resource allocation, thus ensuring the image quality of the region of interest.

    • RAID

      RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a storage technology that combines multiple disk drive components into a logical unit. A RAID setup stores data over multiple hard disk drives to provide enough redundancy so that data can be recovered if one disk fails. Data is distributed across the drives in one of several ways called “RAID levels,” depending on what level of redundancy and performance is required.
    • Rotate Mode

      Rotate Mode

      In a vertically-shaped location such as a hallway or corridor, a horizontal-shaped image could result in pixel wastage. Rotate Mode can change the image from horizontal to vertical, so as to maximize pixel usage and avoid wasting bandwidth and storage space.

    • Smart IR

      The improved Smart IR function adjusts the IR strength to have better visibility depending on specific requirements. Smart IR is usually used to solve the problem of IR over-exposure in close shots.
    • Smart Tracking

      The Smart Tracking function is an innovative technology for PTZ dome cameras, which can enhance the effectiveness of the video surveillance system. In surveillance scenes where the occasional presence of people or vehicles require special attention (e.g., bank vaults, hotel corridors, parking garages, etc.), smart tracking can be used to detect moving objects and follow their movements until they’re out of view.
    • Scene Change Detection

      Scene Change Detection

      Scene change detection is a behavior analysis function of Hinovision's Smart Features set. If someone changes the camera’s viewing direction so that the camera captures a different scene, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre-configured.

    • Smart Playback

      Smart Playback provides an easy way to go through less important information quickly. In Smart Playback mode, the system will analyze the video containing the motion or VCA (Video Content Analytics) information. The video with motion or VCA will be played at normal speed while the one without motion or VCA information will be played at up to 16-times speed. The Smart Playback rules and areas are configurable.
    • Sudden Audio Increase/Decrease Detection

      Sudden Audio Increase/Decrease Detection is a behavior analysis function of Hinovision's Smart Features set. If there is sudden audio change, either increase or decrease, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre-configured.
    • S.M.A.R.T.

      S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology) is a monitoring system for HDDs to detect and report on various indicators of reliability in the hopes of anticipating failures.
    • Triple Streams

      Triple Stream

      Triple streams provide much more flexibility to users by allowing different data streams to be sent simultaneously. Each stream has independent purposes:

      •  The first stream with high resolution and full frame rate can be used for main monitoring.

      •  The second stream with lower resolution can be used for mobile monitoring.

      •  The third stream with high, low, or dynamic resolution offers more flexible choices.

    • Transcoded Stream

      Transcoded Stream

      Certain Hinovision NVRs support a transcoded stream for remote live views and playback. Under situations with limited bandwidth, users can use a transcoded stream to lower the resolution, bitrate, and frame rate of the original bit stream to fulfill the needs of a low-bandwidth network and offer more solutions for remote monitoring.

    • Unattended Baggage

      Unattended Baggage is one of the behavior analysis functions of Hinovision's Smart Features set. If an object(s) is removed from a scene (e.g., baggage, purse, dangerous materials, etc.), the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if so pre-configured.

    • VCA

      VCA (Video Content Analysis) is the capability to analyze video automatically to detect and determine temporal and spatial events. Many smart functionalities can be implemented in VCA such as intrusion detection, line crossing detection, etc.
    • VQD

      VQD (Video Quality Diagnosis) is a feature that monitors the video for abnormal qualities (i.e., blurred image, abnormal brightness, and color cast). An alarm will be triggered and linked with configured response actions.
    • Virtual Host

      Virtual Host

      Virtual Host is an NVR (Network Video Recorder) function that lets users link directly to an IPC (Internet Protocol Camera)’s configuration Web page through the Internet Explorer (IE) browser. Virtual Host solves the issue of logging into an IPC when the IPC is on a different network from the NVR, making the system more convenient and user-friendly.

    • WDR

      WDR

      In conditions with very bright and dark areas, such as at an entrance door in an office building or an entranceway to an indoor parking garage or tunnel, a camera may capture over-exposed images in bright areas and under-exposed images in dark areas, which greatly affects image quality. A camera with WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) can help solve this issue. By combining images with short exposure (for bright areas) and long exposure (for dark areas) into one image, WDR technology captures both bright areas and dark areas clearly.

    • Zero Channel

      Zero Channel

      For remote access, users are able to combine multiple channel videos into one zero channel and save transmission bandwidth.

    • DCIF

      Double Common Intermediate Format, a format of color images whose resolution is 528 x 384 pixels (PAL) or 528 x 320 pixels (NTSC)
  • Technical Articles

    • What is IP camera?

      An IP camera is a networked digital video camera that transmits data over a Fast Ethernet link. IP cameras (also called "network cameras") are most often used for IP surveillance, a digitized and networked version of closed-circuit television (CCTV).

      Benefits of IP camera over analog technology include:

      • Remote administration from any location.
      • Digital zoom.
      • The ability to easily send images and video anywhere with an Internet connection.
      • Progressive scanning, which enables better quality images extracted from the video, especially for moving targets.
      • Adjustable frame rates and resolution to meet specific needs.
      • Two-way communication.
      • The ability to send alerts if suspicious activity is detected.
      • Lower cabling requirements.
      • Support for intelligent video.
    • What is NVR?

      A network video recorder (NVR) is a software program that records video in a digital format to a HDD or other mass storage device. An NVR contains no dedicated video capture hardware. However, the software is typically run on a dedicated device, usually with an embedded operating system.

      Alternatively, to help support increased functionality and serviceability, standard operating systems are used with standard processors and video management software. An NVR is typically deployed in an IP video surveillance system.

      Network video recorders are distinct from digital video recorders (DVR) as their input is from a network rather than a direct connection to a video capture card or tuner. Video on a DVR is encoded and processed at the DVR, while video on an NVR is encoded and processed at the camera, then streamed to the NVR for storage or remote viewing. Additional processing may be done at the NVR, such as further compression or tagging with meta data.

      Hybrid NVR/DVR surveillance systems exist which incorporate functions of both NVR and DVR; these are considered a form of NVR.

      NVR home surveillance systems are generally easy to set up, can be accessed through a web browser, and allow the user to be notified by email if an alarm is triggered.

    • IP Ratings - what they mean? What do the numbers in an IP Rating mean?

      IP (or "Ingress Protection") ratings are defined in international standard EN 60529 (British BS EN 60529:1992, European IEC 60509:1989). They are used to define levels of sealing effectiveness of electrical enclosures against intrusion from foreign bodies (tools, dirt etc) and moisture.

      The numbers that follow IP each have a specific meaning. The first indicates the degree of protection (of people) from moving parts, as well as the protection of enclosed equipment from foreign bodies. The second defines the protection level that the enclosure enjoys from various forms of moisture (drips, sprays, submersion etc). The tables below should help make sense of it:

      IP Rated Enclosures - quick find chart

      A number replaced by x indicates that the enclosure is not rated for that spec.

      First Digit (intrusion protection)

      1. No special protection<
      2. Protection from a large part of the body such as a hand (but no protection from deliberate access); from solid objects greater than 50mm in diameter.
      3. Protection against fingers or other object not greater than 80mm in length and 12mm in diameter.
      4. Protection from entry by tools, wires etc, with a diameter of 2.5 mm or more.
      5. Protection against solid bodies larger than 1mm (eg fine tools/small etc).
      6. Protected against dust that may harm equipment.
      7. Totally dust tight.

      Second Digit (moisture protection)

      1. No protection.
      2. Protection against condensation
      3. Protection against water droplets deflected up to 15° from vertical
      4. Protected against spray up to 60° from vertical.
      5. Protected against water spray from all directions.
      6. Protection against low pressure water jets (all directions)
      7. Protection against string water jets and waves.
      8. Protected against temporary immersion.
      9. Protected against prolonged effects of immersion under pressure.
    • What is HD-TVI and AHD?

      Among the latest analog high definition technologies, the HD-TVI and AHD are quite new. HD-TVI was developed by USA company - Techpoint. This new analog HD technology has been deployed into Hikvision's analog security products. Hikvision takes advantage of HD-TVI technology in order to against Dahua HD-CVI. At IFSEC 2015 London (Global security exhibition), Techpoint introduced its HD-TVI 2.0 version, now the HD-TVI supports 720p 30/25fps, 720p 60/50fps, 1080p 30/25fps high definition video transmission. Furthermore, HD-TVI receiver is back compatible with 960H format, which means the HD-TVI DVR can receive analog signals from analog 960H video cameras.

      AHD stands for analog high definition, AHD is based on AHD standard which developed by Korean chip-set manufacturer - NextChip. AHD is able to deliver uncompressed 720p / 1080p high definition video over Cat 75-3 coaxial cable, and transmission distance up to 500 meters. This technology breakthrough the current HD video transmission limitation (<= 100 meters), it can achieve low-cost, long range, no video latency, high efficient megapixel resolution video transmission.

      Both HD-TVI and AHD are open standard, which allows hundreds of manufacturers develop analog security cameras based on these technologies. Additionally, compared with other technologies, the cost for HD-TVI and AHD is extreme low, end-users can enjoy the analog high definition video surveillance with same price as traditional analog camera. 

      AHD/TVI/CVI Comparison

    • What is WDR?

      Lighting is the most critical factor to consider when selecting the right camera for any security surveillance installation. For environments that maintain constant lighting conditions, like an interior office or storage area, a standard color security camera is a great choice. If the environment changes from day light to complete darkness, like a parking lot, night vision cameras stream clear video day or night. But what about areas that are affected by dramatic changes in available light, like a sunlit lobby? Environments such as sunlit lobbies or street facing store fronts require a camera that can adapt to various lighting conditions. Wide Dynamic Range Cameras have built-in technology which digitally creates a middle ground between the brightest and darkest areas within the camera's field of view. The enhanced color image is carefully balanced and transmitted to the digital video recorder assuring all areas within the field of view are perfectly exposed.

      If you've ever taken a picture in front of a sunset, you know the affect dramatic light can have on a camera. The image you had carefully created now has two focal points; the sunset and the darkened images in front of it. The same thing happens when you point a standard color security camera at an object that becomes backlit by the sun or by vehicle headlights. When a standard color security camera is installed, the white balance and lens aperture is adjusted to allow for more or less light. This camera is customized so that it is tuned to that specific environment. If the light in the area changes and the camera is no longer in sync with its environment, the once clear image may be blurry, washed out, or so dark that a person cannot be identified. Wide Dynamic Cameras adjust automatically to whatever light is available.

      The digital sensory chip within the Wide Dynamic Camera controls its ability to adapt. For example, if a Wide Dynamic Camera is pointed at the entrance of a 24-hour convenience store, the lighting conditions will be very different in the early morning versus late at night. During the day, the camera contends with the sun as it moves across the sky. At night, car headlights provide the biggest challenge. The Wide Dynamic Camera's digital sensory chip isn't concerned with where the light comes from but rather how white it is as compared to the darkest item within its field of view. Pixel by pixel it gathers information and discerns the range of colors. It then compares the white area with the dark and processes each image, minimizing the effects of both, before streaming it back to the DVR. The result is video that can be used to help identify persons of interest or vehicles as they enter or exit the scene.

      Wide Dynamic Cameras are ideal for any environment that has large windows or glass doors such as office lobbies, convenience stores, and restaurants. They are also designed for areas that may be affected by bright bursts of light like elevators, stairway entrances, warehouse doors or parking garages.

      wdr-example

    • What is Vari-focal Lens?

      The fixed length or vari-focal length refers to the ability to adjust the camera’s field of view. Vari-focal lenses are typically found in a 2.8mm to 12mm, 4mm to 9mm, or 5mm to 50mm configurations. Fixed focal lenses are available in in various sizes but are limited in scope (fixed) to the noted lens size. The smaller the lens size, the wider the field of view. Depending on the distance between the installed cameras and the point of interest, camera lenses with the same focal length will produce different fields of view. Therefore, before you make a camera selection, know how you want the camera to perform.

      Security surveillance cameras generally have three uses: to survey an area for disturbance, monitor behavior, or identify individuals. If your goal is to survey an area such as a parking lot, select a lens with the widest field of view. To monitor behavior, such as making sure a grocery store clerk stays at their register during their shift, a mid-range lens is ideal. However, if you want to have enough detail to help police identify someone you don’t know, like a robber entering a convenience store, a longer range lens is needed. If you are unsure how your camera will be used, if your use will change over time, or you would prefer to have some flexibility in your installation height and field of view, choose a camera and lens combination with a vari-focal length and automatic iris lens.